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UNIT #6 Document Based Question 02/23/17 (Read both DBQ Essays #1, #2 and #3) Grade each essay using the DBQ rubric (yellow packet) and discuss each essay with your group. Compare the beliefs and strategies of the Populists the Progressives in addressing the challenges American society faced during the late 19th and 20th centuries. Essay of the week #1 The Progressive Era in the United States from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century brought forth many challenges to the American society. The beliefs and strategies of the Populists and the Progressives differed between each of the groups. The Progressives wanted political reform spreading across the United States, while facing challenges with industrialization and corruption in the American government and fought it through progressive movements. The Populists, on a similar yet different concept, believed in the workers rights, specifically rural laborers like farmers, and was critical over capitalism, including large corporations like banks and the railroad achieved through labor movements. During that which was the Progressive Era, the Progressives goal was to fix challenges posed by industrialization. Strict and poor conditions of industrial corporations led to many workers starving and extremely underpaid, while those who employ work little and and live easy. Document 4 is an example of this idea. The document claims, “there can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among the millions of the working people and the few, who make up the employing class, have all the good things in life.” This document was written for those who made up the Industrial Workers of the World in a way to inform them the reason they must fight for their workers rights and support their cause. Document 6, an except from The Jungle, shares a realist story of laborers working in a slaughterhouse and the unsanitary nature of how they wash their hands in what is to be used for their moldy sausages for the house to eat. The author’s intended purpose for this cruel description was to show how conditions in these factories were less than reasonable. This display did its purpose and became one of the main influences to inspections of working conditions and making sure it was up to par. Document 5 is an example of an act passed in favor of better working conditions titled the “Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906,” prohibiting harmful substances from being manufactured, sold, or transported. This document shows some of the success of Progressives during this time period. Document 7 shows corruption in the government due to large businesses, specifically the oil industry. The cartoon is showing how the oil corporation is trying to take control of the U.S. government. Political cartoons like these were a way the Progressives also fought for idea. Muckrakers and journalists constantly portrayed the corruption in political leaders and business owners. After the failure of the Farmer’s Alliance which fought railroad abuse and lower interest rates from the National Bank, the Populist Party was formed. The Populists, also known as the people’s party, belief was in laborers’ rights and fought against industrialization and other corporations like the railroad. Document 2 discusses this idea in depth. It explains how those with money and power rule other those who life in the rural areas provide them with crops and a harvest. They talk about who they want to remove the National Banks and receive loans straight from the government. “It is not longer a government of people, by the people, and for the people, but a government of Wall Street, and for Wall Street,” saying they want to return to what was once America, not run by capitalism. They want to see the government in America again. The author’s point of view is of a woman who lived in rural America who had felt the effects of Wall Street and other large corporations. Document 3 talks about how the urbanized cities preferred the gold standard to any alternative. The excerpt then wants the audience of those living in those cities to imagine their city in rural setting and then they should keep the gold standard, “but destroy our farms and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country.” The Populist fought many of their challenges through a various number of groups formed in support of the populist idea, as well as ideas that formed as a result of the Populists including the use of bimetallism. Issues similar to the problems presented by the Populists also affected England a few centuries prior. One of the main events leading up to the English Revolution was political movements among the working class and peasants in England at the time. During the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, the United States seemed to be in a state that was ruled over by large corporation and capitalism in general. Both the Progressives and Populists wanted to fight against the control of these industries. The Progressives wanted to fight against corruption in the government and in industrialization. The Populists wanted the rights for the workers and government back to the people instead of large business owners.
Essay of the Week #2 After the Civil War, the United States entered a time of industrialization and manufacturing. Large corporations and companies like Standard Oil Company and Carnegie Steel monopolized industries. Railroads expanded across the nation. People of all nationalities, gender, and age went to work in factories, sometimes with not so great working conditions. The rich got richer and the poor got poorer as well as a new middle class. These new industries and ways of life meant new problems to fix. The Populists and Progressives were two groups of people who addressed this need for reform. Although the Populists and Progressives had similar goals for reform and help for the poor, they had different focuses. The Populists believed in helping rural farmers and focused on fighting against the government and the Progressives focused on urban reform and fought within the government. After the Civil War, unions and alliances cropped up. Farmers started The Grange and the Farmers Alliance. Workers from around the nation came together to form the Knights of Labor. Unions like these still help workers today. And these unions and workers needed a political party to support them. Thus formed the Populist Party or the People’s Party in 1892. Populists didn’t agree with either the Democrats or Republicans so they had to form a new party to fight. Unlike the Progressives a few years later, who came from both Republican and Democrat as well as Populist and Bull Moose parties. We see the Populists’ dislike for the government and political parties in Mary Elizabeth Lease’s speech, “Wall Street Owns the Country,” where she says, “The [political] parties lie to us and the political speakers mislead us” (Doc 2). Mary Elizabeth Lease was a leader of the Populist and spoke in defense of farmers in 1890. They didn’t trust politicians. Whereas the Progressives were politicians. There were three progressive presidents while the Populist party never got one elected. Theodore Roosevelt was a progressive and busted trusts as we can see in political cartoon, “The President’s Dream of a Successful Hunt” (Doc 1). We can also see how the government were the good guys in the Progressive Era in political cartoon, “Standard Oil Company with Octopus” (Doc 7). The government is what is being attacked by the evil corporative octopus. Both populist and progressives wanted change for the poor and working class but populists blamed and attacked the government while the Progressives worked from within. Populists’ believed that the problems were partly the fault of the government and their strategy was to form a new party while the Progressives strategy was to reform the government itself in order to stop monopolies. The Populists fought for the farmer and the rural communities while Progressives fought for the urban factory worker. The Populist Party was made up of unions and alliances like the Grange and Agricultural Wheel. They wanted to stop the gold standard to raise inflation to help farmers’ prices. William Jennings Bryan, a leader of the Populists, gave a speech, “Cross of Gold,” that addressed the Populists’ dislike of cities and support of farms. He spoke to politicians and people of the day to rally against the gold standard and fight to include silver as well. He said, “The great cities rest upon these broad and fertile prairies” (Doc 3). He argued that they needed farms for cities to exist and without farms cities would die. The Progressives also supported unions and the working class but worked for reform in factories and cities. Muckrakers like Jacob Riis went into the slums of cities to reform the slums. Muckrakers in New York reformed city politics. In 1906, Upton Sinclair published The Jungle, a book about factory life in Chicago, one of the US’s greatest cities (Doc 6). He wrote the novel for the American it to tell the story of immigrants in the slums. His perspective on the hard life sparked change in labor conditions. Both the populists and progressives fought for the rights for the working class but the Populists worked for the farmer and the Progressives for the factory worker. Of course there was overlap in how the parties worked and who they worked for. Unions like the International Workers of the World formed during the Progressive Era (1905), helped farmers and factory workers and miners and those in the slums alike (Doc 4). Populist ideals bled into and led to the ideals of the Progressives. Both didn’t like monopolies or robber barons. Both wanted new labor laws and property taxes. But one group was more successful than the other. Four Amendments were passed during the Progressive Era. Three Progressive presidents were elected. Muckrakers found success and new laws were passed like The Pure Food and Drug Act that Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle inspired (Docs 5 and 6). Antitrust laws were passed. New tariffs were created. Because the Progressives worked through the government their goal to improve urban life for the working class was more easily accomplished than the Populists’ goal to help farmers beat the government and politics. The lives of the working class improved more in the Progressive Era. In America’s growing cities, a belief and strategy to help urban slums was more successful than trying to help farmers. The Populists were better at addressing the needs of all races within their party. Progressives tended to ignore African Americans. The Populists at least allowed them in unions. But in all different approaches to a similar problem made for very different outcomes.
Essay of the Week #3 In the late 19th century and early 20th century, America had entered into a new industrial age. With this new age came a new division of people, the working middle class. These were the average American men and women working hard in new industries for a humble living. A common theme during this time was the banding together of these workers to form a voice in favor of their rights, first as the Populist party and then the Progressive party. Each party shared similar goals such as better conditions and rights for workers. While the Populist party believed in change for rural farmers and the use of force to bring this about, the Progressive party was more urban based who favored using government level reform to bring about change. The Populist party believed in change focused on farmers and often times created unions and executed strikes to get their voice heard. Document 2 presents a populist and farmers point of view on the current US situation in those days. It tells the story of the farmers; they worked hard producing crops but then receive little profit in return and struggled to survive. Lease states, “We will stand by our homes… by force if necessary.” This represents the Populist view of using sheer force of will to get change. Another example is the many strikes of the farmer unions, who identified with the populist party. Strikes were a new system, waiting out the enemy until forced to respond. One specific example of the farmers banding together is the Farmers Alliance. The group avoided politics and was know for using strikes to bring about the change they wanted. Many similar farmers unions were formed like the Grange and Agricultural Wheel. Document 3 also identifies as a farmer and explained that without farmers US could not function. This was another belief of the farmer based Populist party. Because the Populist party was more centered on change for a specific group, it closely identifies with the later African American rights movement. Like the farmers, African American were fighting for a voice in a changing society and rights within it. The Progressive party was more urban based and favored government level reform to bring about change. Document 6 provides an example of the meat industry, which was located in cities, to bring about change. Upton Sinclair was a muckraking journalist which embodied the progressive agenda. Identify the problems in the society so that the majority of the people can act together to bring about real change. Progressive party did bring about government level reform as shown in Document 5, an official government act reforming the previously un-reigned food industry. Progressive party also focused on destroying the urban based trusts and monopolies, more so than the Populist farmers. Document 7, most likely drawn from a antitrust progressive point of view, displays the progressive view on monopolies. They believed monopolies were far too large and had far too much control, even to the point of controlling the government. Document 1 displayed one version of progressive reform through a cartoon of Theodore Roosevelt, progressive president. Most likely a progressive, pro-Roosevelt point of view, the cartoonist explains the goals of one progressive agenda, eliminate bad trust but strictly regulate the “good” ones. Document 4, from the point of view of a workers union, can represent all workers of the 19th and 20th century as well as Populist and Progressive parties. It describes the ultimate goal, the worker class to be recognized and to have a voice. While Populist wanted this change for farmers and used force, Progressive took the desire for change to a broader more urban environment and used real government reform to bring about real change.
__________________________________________________ Unit #5 Long Essay Question
Prompt: Evaluate the extent to which the period of Reconstruction contributed to maintaining continuity as well as promoting change in the American society.
After the Civil War, the United States faced many problems like readmitting Confederate states, paying off war debts and affirming that a similar war wouldn’t happen again. The attempt to solve these problems was called Reconstruction. But the biggest problem that the United States faced was how to deal with the relations between the freed slaves and white Southerners. Reconstruction may have been an effort to aid African Americans and reconcile them with other citizens but in the end the relationship between freed slaves and white southerners remained the same.
Congress passed many acts and amendments to give more rights to African Americans. Congress added three amendments to the constitution in order to abolish slavery, ensure the right to vote for African Americans and give equal rights to everyone. But after Reconstruction ended these rights were all taken away in one form or another. Even President Johnson called this time “Restoration” not “Reconstruction.”
The 13th amendment abolished slavery but it did not take away the labor system that took advantage of African Americans. After the war, freed slaves didn’t have land. Their choices were to work on the railroad or work for wages on the same plantation they had been slaves on. Some took these choices but most wanted a chance for their own success, their own land. Before the war was over freed slaves were taking the land they had worked on. General Sherman even granted some slaves their previous owners land. But President Johnson put an end to that. Plantation owners needed workers and freedmen wanted land so they worked out a compromise called sharecropping. Freed slaves would be given land, tools, seeds, and a house on credit and then work for a share of the profit of the crop. It was their chance and it seemed like change might happen. But white plantation owners made unfair prices and thus the labor system of slavery continued through a new method but with similar end results.
The 14th amendment gave all men the right to vote but the federal government was not able to enforce this as well as the Klu Klux Klan and other white supremacists were able to enforce the opposite. When General Grant entered office, he tried to enforce the right to vote with federal troops. He tried to allow people to vote as they please but the South wasn’t about to change their minds. In Mississippi, not a single Democrat ballot was voted. Even until the 1960’s and protest marches in Selma African Americans continued to fight for their right to vote. Reconstruction may have offered a new amendment and the idea of universal suffrage but the federal government was not able to enforce it so continuity in the ballots stayed.
The 15th Amendment gave citizenship to all races and the rights to life, liberty, and due process to everyone no matter the color of their skin but as we can see through Jim Crow laws, the Civil Rights movement almost 100 years later, and the racism that still exists today, change in equality did not come during reconstruction. The Freedmen’s Bureau and education for African Americans looked like change but when Reconstruction ended so did the change. In order to allow Republican nominee Hayes to enter the White House, federal troops were pulled out of the South and Reconstruction officially ended. With this, white Southerners took back their government and created new black codes. A segregated south began and lasted for almost 70 years.
Reconstruction may have prevented segregation for a while but it couldn’t stop the hate from continuing. The three new amendments passed did offer change and were a basis for change to come but Reconstruction wasn’t the era of change. It was an era of continued racism and continued hate. The violence of the Klu Klux Klan shows us the hate. The labor system of sharecropping shows us the continued lack of opportunity. And segregation shows us the continued racism. Reconstruction contributed more to continuity than to change.
EXAMPLE SAQ #1 (Unit 4 Exam)
EXAMPLE SAQ #2
LEQ US global interactions between 1780 and 1932
During the late 1700’s and early 1800’s the newly founded united states sought not only for its own autonomy to make decisions for itself but also the right to interact and interfere with global policies. With the inauguration of the third president Thomas Jefferson the nation headed more away from gaining its own independence from foreign nations to increasing its own power and interacting with other nations. In this period the United states sought advance itself in world affairs by Gaining new lands, Monopolizing new markets, and the arming of itself against threats. During the Washington administration many efforts were sought to gain new land by Washington's faculty. To Washington’s surprise Pinckney (a American/Spanish ambassador) was able through treaties to expand US territories further south and gain access to the port of New Orleans with treaties with Spain. Although this treaty surprised Washington and excited the nation along with the expansion in the northwest ordinances it was only a modest expansion of the United States territory. When Jefferson came into presidency, Jefferson planned on the buying of New Orleans from France but due to France’s war debts the ambassadors sent to Belgium were able to gain the entire Louisiana territory from France. This was truly ambitious of Jefferson to increase an already sparse nation by almost double. Rural settlers were overjoyed with the announcement the US had given even more land to obtain. This purchase set a precedent the the US should continue to expand and increase its size gaining more property for these settlers. When Andrew Jackson went to defend the nation in these southern and western areas he greatly appreciated the increased land and made it one of his key dilemmas during his presidency that the US would continue to expand moving Indians out of reservations to make room for more white settlers. Jefferson led this idea with his purchase and it continued through to his predecessors Madison, Monroe and Jackson who made it their duty not only to expand to the west of the US but to protect and influence if not control the rest of the Americas through the Monroe Doctrine. Although foreign policy makers were either amused of disturbed by the US’s audacity they made good on their promise not only in this period but in the late 1800’s and 1900’s if not today in our expanding ideals of protecting, influences, and controlling world policies. Through this period the US would begin to marginalize on its key resources often monopolizing on industries such as cotton, tobacco and textile. In the 1790’s the creation of the cotton gin greatly increased the output of cotton into the world supply Jefferson and his successors feared that the British India would soon take over of the Industry. Through certain slave codes and trading agreements the US was able to oust the British and become the main global supplier of cotton. This along with the increasing production of foodstuffs sent around Europe greatly increased the American influence throughout the world. Trade taxes such as British codes requiring american ships to pay taxes for trading in Europe greatly hindered american trade. Due to this tension american leaders following Jefferson soon found it necessary to go to war not only to expand but to protect their trade. With trade expanding the US was able to connect to many European nations setting future relations between the countries, for example the US after the war of 1812 was a key trading partner with great Britain especially with all the cotton trade in the 1860’s during the civil war the Northern union of united states appealed to these same trading connections hoping the the British would join their cause against the south to protect the cotton supply for England. These seemingly small trade agreements amounted to massive consequences. Finally the US increased its influence throughout the world by preparing and defending itself against stronger European nations in warfare. In 1812 the United States tired of being forced around by Britain having to pay unnecessary taxes and stealing their sailors led the US to declare war against Britain. This direct involvement, not only affected the US but France and Britain's colonies as well. Canada one of Britain’s largest colonies had the most direct conflict with the war of 1812 as soldiers passed between the borders to try to gain the upper hand to free Canada from Britain's rule. Ironically Canada had little desire to separate itself from its mother country and joined the British soldiers in defending against the american invaders. This period of history strengthened the concept of America often call the second independence war the war of 1812 verified that america could indeed hold its own in global combat. It also set a precedent for future wars in later periods, because although many Americans were angered to war by Britain's actions another leading cause was the desire to annex Canada and other British territories. In future periods America would again engage itself in battle to gain more lands such is the case of the Spanish-American war were the US sought to gain Spanish Islands and succeeded in this. During this period the United states sought advance itself in world affairs by Gaining new lands, Monopolizing new markets, and the arming of itself against threats. With this newly founded entrance and presence in global affairs the US could begin to enact its own policies on the world such as the Monroe doctrine with less resistance in future generations it even set the stage for the american presence in the first World War as it maintained key connections to France and Britain after the war of 1812 and through trading connections which led the US to join the triple entente and allies in this war. The US actions in this period truly were consequential to not only its current residents but its future generations interactions with the world for decades to come.
Short Answer Questions Feb.2, 2016
Essay of the week
DBQ Prompt: In 1913 historian James Ford Rhodes asserted that the American Civil War can be attributed to a “single cause, slavery.” Assess the validity of his interpretation. What caused the Civil War? Use the documents and your knowledge of the period from 1830 to 1861 to answer the question. DBQ: Civil War When analyzing the cause or causes of the Civil War it is important to take into account all of the social, political, or economic factors that contributed to this. From the beginning of the United States slavery was a key issue and it continued to be so through the history of the U.S, being the reason behind countless compromises and laws such as the missouri compromise as well as the compromise of 1850. During the time period leading up to the civil war slavery dominated politics as well as society being the main social issue of the time, and also economics being that cotton production created an abundance of wealth for southern cotton growers and others. We can therefore agree with historian James Gord Rhodes when he states that the American Civil War can be attributed to a single cause, slavery because it dominated society as well as politics in the time leading up to the civil war. Slavery can be attributed as the main cause of the civil war because it dominated society in the time leading up to the civil war. This is shown in the document “Forcing Slavery Down the Throat of a Freesoiler” where a man is being force fed slaves as people in that time period were forced to accept slavery in many parts of the U.S and because of acts such as theFugitive slave act that made many northerners who loathed slavery participate in the retuning of African Americans to slavery. This document is from the point of view of a northerner who has strong feelings against slavery shown in the bias of the document. Another example of slavery dominating society is shown in the document “Effects of the Fugitive Slave Law” with the purpose of raising anti-fugitive slave act sentiment in the north.This shows how people spoke out about their feelings about slavery such as Harriet beecher stowe's “Uncle Tom's Cabin” written in direct response to the Fugitive Slave Act. Slavery can be attributed as the main cause of the civil war because it dominated politics in the time leading up to the Civil War. This is shown in the speech given by congressman Robert Toombs on the house floor where he explains that restricting slavery in the territories and in places such as California would lead to disunion, in other words the south would succeed because of slavery. This document has the intended audience of those in the house of representatives so that those present know the consequences of restricting slavery in specific places. This lead to many debates about how the territories should be organized with some such as Stephen Douglas arguing for popular sovereignty and other such as Lincoln arguing against slavery being allowed in the territories. Another example is the speech given by Daniel Webster with the purpose of discrediting radical abolitionists and showing that succession cannot come peacefully. This again shows how slavery dominated almost of the politics in the time leading up to the civil war. Lastly in the speech given by John C. Calhoun in the senate, Calhoun's purpose, to justify southern succession shows that slavery created the push for secession and that Calhoun’s speech which speaks on the subject of slavery shows the indistinguishable connection between the causes of the Civil War, and slavery. In the time period leading up to the civil war slavery dominated both society and politics through countless means. Leading up to the Civil War laws were passed, books were written, and much more, all on the topic of slavery. The map of the Compromise of 1850 shows how extensive and complex these measures proved to be, with the historical context of many compromises and laws that helped the U.S to remain together throughout its history. This shows how Slavery lead to the Civil War as well as to reconstruction and events before, those both social and political. Slavery can be attributed as the main cause of the Civil War which has broader connections to the U.S and the world. Slavery lead to reconstruction, Jim Crow laws, the civil rights movement and much more, and even today racial issues that have their roots in slavery and the Civil War continue to challenge us today.